Dog coat
A dog's coat is its fur. A dog can be double coated—that is, having both a soft undercoat and a coarser topcoat. Some dog breeds are single-coated—having only one type of coat or the other, more often only the topcoat. The state of the coat is considered an indication of the animal's breeding and health. Most dogs shed their undercoat each spring and re-grow it again as colder weather comes in; this is also referred to as blowing the coat. Many domesticated breeds shed their coat twice a year. In many climates, the topcoat and undercoat might shed continuously in greater and smaller quantities all year. Go ahead and put that sweater on. It will help a little, but you can't depend on it entirely to keep her warm. Pets lose most of their body heat from the pads of their feet, their ears, and their respiratory tract. The best way to guard your animals against the cold is keeping a close eye on them to make sure they're comfortable.


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Winter Care
Some animals can remain outside longer in the winter than others. In some cases, long-haired breeds like Huskies will do better in cold weather than short-haired breeds like Dachshunds. Cats and small dogs will feel the cold sooner than larger animals shoulder-deep in the snow. Your pet's health will also affect how long she can stay out. Conditions like diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances can compromise a pet's ability to regulate her own body heat. Animals that are not generally in good health shouldn't be exposed to winter weather for a long period of time. Very young and very old animals are vulnerable to the cold as well. No pet should stay outside for long periods of time in freezing cold weather. If you have any questions about how long your pet should be out this winter, ask your veterinarian.

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Grooming – benefits for you and your pet
Dog grooming and health go hand in hand. Good grooming makes your pet look good and there are physiological as well as psychological health benefits for your companion. Much of dog grooming takes place at home so it is advisable to begin dog grooming while the puppy is very young. Brushing your dog thoroughly every day is an important part of good hygiene. Your dog should be trained to accept grooming at an early age.

It is best to proceed slowly at the beginning, giving him lots of praises when he submits to you. He also has to learn to sit still or lie on his side. Dog grooming keeps the dog's skin healthy and coat glossy. It helps to improve the blood circulation, keeps the coat free of ticks and other less welcome visitors. It also offers a good bonding time for owner and dog. In the natural world, dogs lick each other and groom each other. This reinforces pack behavior and subordination. Grooming the dog for 10-20 minutes every day or as often as necessary will bring the dog immeasurably closer to you, while keeping him healthy.

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There are numerous dog breeds, with over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. As all dog breeds have been derived from mixed-breed dog populations, the term "purebred" has meaning only with respect to a certain number of generations. Many dogs, especially outside the United States of America and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog’s relationship with humans over the last 10,000 or more years, but most modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. Many of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal.

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Dogs, like humans, are highly social animals and this similarity in their overall behavioral pattern accounts for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. This similarity has earned dogs a unique position in the realm of interspecies relationships. The loyalty and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their natural instincts as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog owners to view their pets as full-fledged family members. Conversely, dogs seem to view their human companions as members of their pack, and make few, if any, distinctions between their owners and fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. Dogs have lived with and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the unique sobriquet "man’s best friend".

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